## Ring homomorphisms preserve nilpotency

Solution to Abstract Algebra by Dummit & Foote 3rd edition Chapter 7.3 Exercise 7.3.32 Solution: Suppose $x^n = 0$. Then $$\varphi(x)^n = \varphi(x^n) = \varphi(0) = 0,$$ so that $\varphi(x)$…

Solution to Abstract Algebra by Dummit & Foote 3rd edition Chapter 7.3 Exercise 7.3.32 Solution: Suppose $x^n = 0$. Then $$\varphi(x)^n = \varphi(x^n) = \varphi(0) = 0,$$ so that $\varphi(x)$…

Solution to Abstract Algebra by Dummit & Foote 3rd edition Chapter 7.3 Exercise 7.3.24 Solution: (1) Let $x,y \in \varphi^\ast[J]$. Now $0 \in J$ and $\varphi(0) = 0$, so that…

Solution to Abstract Algebra by Dummit & Foote 3rd edition Chapter 7.3 Exercise 7.3.17 Solution: (1) Suppose $\varphi(1_R) = r$, with $r \neq 1$. First, if $r = 0$, then…

Solution to Abstract Algebra by Dummit & Foote 3rd edition Chapter 7.3 Exercise 7.3.16 Solution: Suppose $r \in \varphi[Z(R)]$. Then $r = \varphi(z)$ for some $z \in Z(R)$. Now let…

Solution to Abstract Algebra by Dummit & Foote 3rd edition Chapter 7.3 Exercise 7.3.14 Solution: Define $\varphi : \mathbb{H} \rightarrow M_4(\mathbb{R})$ as follows. $$a+bi+cj+dk \mapsto \begin{bmatrix} a & b &…

Solution to Abstract Algebra by Dummit & Foote 3rd edition Chapter 7.3 Exercise 7.3.13 Solution: Define $$\varphi : \mathbb{C} \rightarrow M_2(\mathbb{R}) by a+bi \mapsto \begin{bmatrix} a & b \\ -b…

Solution to Abstract Algebra by Dummit & Foote 3rd edition Chapter 7.3 Exercise 7.3.12 Solution: We begin with a lemma. Lemma: If $D \in \mathbb{Z}$ is not a perfect square,…

Solution to Abstract Algebra by Dummit & Foote 3rd edition Chapter 7.3 Exercise 7.3.11 Solution: We know from calculus that \begin{align*}\varphi(f+g) =&\ \int_0^1 (f+g)(x) dx\\ =&\ \int_0^1 f(x) + g(x)…

Solution to Abstract Algebra by Dummit & Foote 3rd edition Chapter 7.3 Exercise 7.3.7 Solution: Let $A,B \in R$ be arbitrary, with $A = \begin{bmatrix} a_1 & b_1 \\ 0…

Solution to Abstract Algebra by Dummit & Foote 3rd edition Chapter 7.3 Exercise 7.3.6 Decide which of the following are ring homomorphisms from $M_2(\mathbb{Z}) to \mathbb{Z}$. (1) $\begin{bmatrix} a &…

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